Lærke Thorling Sørensen, CV
Phone: +45 2055 5260
State Geologist, Head of Department
Claus Kjøller, CV
Phone: +45 5172 82602
GNOI/GEUS rapport 2014/37
National Groundwater Monitoring Programme, GRUMO, forms part of the national
Danish water and nature monitoring programme: NOVANA.
the current programme period, 2011-2015, the objective and monitoring design
have been adapted to the groundwater monitoring requirements of the Water
Framework Directive and the Groundwater Directive, and one of several changes
is an increased focus on describing the quality of the groundwater that flows
into the Danish freshwater bodies and wetlands.
national monitoring programmes were originally initiated in pursuance of the
adoption of the 1987 Water Action Plan and then had two main objectives:
Firstly, to measure the impact of the water action plans and the general
agriculture regulations relating to the nitrogen and phosphorus burden on the
water environment. Secondly, and specifically in relation to groundwater
monitoring, the objective was to monitor the development in the quality and
quantity of the groundwater resource in general to ensure a good drinking water
quality for Denmark's population in the future. Furthermore, the monitoring
shall provide knowledge that may enable ongoing adjustment of the waterworks'
well monitoring programme.
Monitoring of the groundwater shall ensure
continuous accumulation of knowledge about the quality of the groundwater and
its suitability for production of drinking water. Finally, the monitoring shall
produce knowledge allowing us to assess to which degree the groundwater's
quality causes contamination of watercourses and other surface waters, as the
groundwater quality has a substantial influence on the water quality in water
courses, among others.
The overall objective of the groundwater
monitoring initiative is to:
- Produce the knowledge needed
about the current status and developments in the quality and quantity of
the groundwater and about the causes of any changes observed. This
knowledge will be employed to ensure sufficient quantities of the needed
quality of water in the future allowing us to cover both society's need
for water supply and its need for water in the nature in order to maintain
the desired environmental objectives.
- Overall documentation of the impact of the water
action plans and other relevant environmental regulation on the quality and
quantity of the groundwater resource - including if the desired environmental
objectives are met and if the development is on course.
- Fulfil Denmark's obligations in
pursuance of statutory EU provisions, international conventions and
- Contribute to strengthening the professional
foundation for future international initiatives, national action plans,
regional administration and other measures implemented to protect and exploit
the groundwater resource, including to contribute to developing various tools
and to build a stronger awareness of the link between groundwater and surface
- Continuously disseminate information about the
groundwater's quality and quantity, internationally as well as nationally.
the GRUMO initiative, the groundwater quality is monitored through monitoring
of approx. 1,000 monitoring wells. The samples collected are tested for a wide
range of substances including nitrate, pesticides, chloride, arsenic, organic
pollution components, etc. The sampling frequency is greatest in wells affected
by human activity.
addition to the GRUMO monitoring, the groundwater is also monitored by the
waterworks. The quality is monitored in the individual abstraction wells at
regular intervals (normally 3-5 years) under the Waterworks' Well Monitoring
The quantity of the groundwater is monitored
several times daily as part of The National Groundwater Level Monitoring
Programme. Additionally, the waterworks, anyone abstracting water for
irrigation purposes and other persons abstracting water for dedicated purposes
shall report the annual abstracted water quantity to the joint public database
Station net for groundwater monitoring in Denmark, 1988-2012
Since 1989, the status quo of the groundwater
monitoring has been presented annually (except for 2006) by GEUS in a report
that has been published in electronic form only since 2005.
In the left-hand
column of this page, please find links to all reports that are available in
Groundwater – nature - surface water
A development initiative has been set in motion
that focuses on the interaction between groundwater, ecosystems in dry nature
and surface water. In particular, there is a need for an improved method for
the description and monitoring of how the conditions of these ecosystems are
affected by the chemical composition of the groundwater and changes in the level
of the groundwater table, including any periodically flooded areas.
GNOI (Danish acronym for Groundwater, nature and
surface water interaction) is an element in the national monitoring programme
for the 2011-2015 period, and its objective (according to the programme
description) is to maintain and improve the ecological quality of some types of
nature that depend on the groundwater quality and quantity, e.g. fens and bogs,
through characterisation and monitoring, cf. the requirements of the Water
Framework Directive and the Groundwater Directive. Thus, the GNOI shall form
the basis for risk assessment and basic analysis, and it shall facilitate the
introduction of strategic monitoring programmes in pursuance of the water
According to the Water Framework Directive, (EC
2000) and the Groundwater Directive (EC, 2006), the groundwater's chemical and
quantitative condition shall be monitored both through control monitoring,
which is to provide a representative description of the water's condition, and
through more targeted operational monitoring initiated on the basis of risk
Thus, monitoring through characterisation and
establishment of time series shall contribute to protecting both drinking water
and ecosystems, and form the basis for establishment of threshold values for
pollutants from diffuse sources if there is a risk that the impacts obstruct a
good ecologic condition of any depending terrestrial ecosystems or the
associated lotic ecosystems.
Furthermore, the groundwater's quantitative and
qualitative status quo is of pivotal importance when it comes to ensuring a
good condition of nature and a high level of preservation worthiness of the
groundwater-dependent terrestrial nature types and aquaticlotic ecosystems, cf.
the Habitats Directive and a good ecologic and chemical condition in accordance
with the Water Framework Directive.
In 2013, the Danish Nature Agency (DNA) decided
to launch a basic characterisation
that is to characterise the interaction between groundwater, nature and surface
water in the Urup Dam on the Danish island of Funen. The final report (in Danish) is available here (6 MB).
Programme description and organisation of the groundwater monitoring
The Danish Ministry of the Environment is
overall responsible for the groundwater monitoring initiative, GRUMO. The local
units of the Danish Nature Agency handle the practical implementation of the
The programme description for the groundwater
monitoring initiative 2001-2015 appears from NOVANA part 1 and NOVANA part 2. Both in Danish!
GEUS serves as the professional data centre for
groundwater and wells, which means that GEUS provides professional consulting
on monitoring issues and, among others, prepares and maintains the technical guidelines.
GEUS prepares the annual status report, which is available for download from
- The entire monitoring programme has its own
website with the Danish Nature Agency. Please see HERE. (in Danish)
full programme description for the total water and nature monitoring efforts is
available at this LINK. (in Danish)
GEUS contact person for groundwater monitoring is Senior Advisor Lærke
Thorling, CV, Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, Phone: +45 2055 5260
GEUS contact person for groundwater monitoring/pesticides is State Geologist and Head of Department Claus Kjøller,
CV, Mail: email@example.com, Phone: +45 5172 82602
Tecnical guidelines for groundwater monitoring
The objective of technical guidelines is to
provide unequivocal instructions for the sampling, analysis, quality assurance
and transfer of data. Technical guidelines are mandatory for all programme
participants. The target group for the technical guidelines is the persons and
institutions that will undertake the establishment, sampling, analysis, quality
analysis and data transfer. Furthermore, the guidelines serve as technical
documentation detailing the conditions under which groundwater monitoring is
performed. The technical guidelines for groundwater sampling and groundwater
level measurements are from 2012. The technical guidelines for the
establishment of station nets require updating, as the old technical
instruction from 2004 remains in use.
Furthermore, technical guidelines are prepared
on data handling. The technical guideline on groundwater table data is from
2014, whereas the technical guidelines for chemical water analyses and well
data have still to be completed. These
will be published online as they are completed. Until further notice, please
refer to the JUPITER website.
Techincal Guidelines in English
Techincal Guidelines in Danish
Inter-calibrating of field analyses
To ensure a homogeneous quality of the field
work performed, the field analyses were inter-calibrated. All environmental
centres participated in the inter-calibration, and the results were
disseminated in the below report. The technical instructions will be amended to
take into account the results from the inter-calibration at the next revision
of the instructions.
Inter-calibrating of the 2007 groundwater sampling NOVANA_final.pdf (500Kb) (in Danish)
The amenability of groundwater monitoring wells
In 2001-02, a working group consisting of county
representatives and GEUS prepared a practical assessment of all groundwater
Renovation of monitoring wells in the County of
Roskilde - age-determination of groundwater using the CFC method before and
As a follow-up on the above working report, the
County of Roskilde, among others, initiated a more thorough investigation of
any monitoring wells that are potentially leaking. The results from the study
are available here:
Development in the monitoring of nitrate and the impact of the action
plans under the Nitrate Directive.
A report on the monitoring of nitrate in
drinking water and surface water in Northern Europe and the means employed to
fulfil the requirements of the Nitrate Directive.
The EU Member States are obliged to monitor the
content of nitrate in surface water and groundwater and the impact of their
action plans/water action plans. The results of the monitoring shall be
reported to the EU Commission. The results from an international workshop
demonstrated that the countries have different interpretations of how the
monitoring needs to be performed as no guidelines are in place to establish how
the monitoring shall be implemented, either in the Directive or in any EU
guidelines. Another conclusion was that the majority of the countries had
increased their monitoring efforts on water quality in the course of the past
10-15 years. This increase is a result of discussions between the member states
and the EU Commission to determine how the political regulations were to be
established, including e.g. the policy coherence requirements. The member
states aim to document the environmental impact of their chosen means by
reporting the results of extra monitoring efforts. Another cause explaining
that monitoring has been intensified is that the member states who have
recently joined the EU have needed to align their monitoring systems to the
relevant EU directives.
The Dutch monitoring institute, RIVM, organised
this workshop in collaboration with the National Environmental Research
Institute, Danish centre on energy (DCE), Aarhus University, and GEUS, both
from Denmark, and the Institute for Social-economic Research, LEI, which forms
part of the Wageningen University in 2009. Twelve countries from North-Western
Europe and Central Europe participated in the second 'MonNO3' workshop. The
focus was mainly on exchange of knowledge and facts on monitoring of the impact
of the policy adopted in the various countries. An additional focus area was
the use of monitoring data for other purposes apart from gaining knowledge
about the status quo and trends for water quality, e.g. data that may support
the choice between action programmes.
Professional assessment of groundwater wells and
measurement wells and monitoring stations as part of the Agricultural Catchment
Programme (LOOP) 2010 GEUS, in
collaboration with the Danish Nature Agency, Danish Ministry of the
Environment, have prepared a GEUS report that presents a professional
assessment of groundwater wells and groundwater table measurement wells as part
of the Agricultural Catchment Monitoring Programme (LOOP).
Further reading and relevant articles
- Regional analysis of groundwater nitrate concentrations and trends in Denmark in regard to agricultural influence. Biogeosciences, 9, 3277-3286, 2012
- Trend Reversal of Nitrate in Danish Groundwater - a Reflection of Agricultural Practices and Nitrogen Surpluses since 1950. Environ. Sci. Technol., 2011, 45 (1), pp 228-234
- Groundwater monitoring in Denmark: characteristics, perspectives and comparison with other contries. Hydrogeology Journal June 2009, Volume 17, Issue 4, pp 827-842
- Groundwater quality monitoring in Denmark. GEUS Bulletin 7, Review of Survey activities 2004, pp 33-36
In Denmark all tap water is groundwater.
For future consumers we monitor the effeciency of the protection measures
Sampling of ground water
(Photo: Troels Laier)
Sampling of ground water
(Photo: Troels Laier)
Monitoring of ground water table.
From NOVANA-report 2011
Urup Dam on Fyn is the first location designated by the Nature Agency where a characterisation of the interaction between groundwater, nature and surface has taken place.
See the report HERE!
(Photo: Bertel Nilsson)
Urup Dam is one of the few Danish habitats the rare yellow wipelip orchid (Liparis loeselii).
(Photo: Bente Fyrstenberg Nedergaard)