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> Home > Publications > Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland Map Series > Vol. 6 Geol. Surv. Den. Greenl. Map Series

​Geolog​ical Survey of Denmark and Greenland Map Series 6 

​​Kortbladsbeskrivelse (descriptive text to) til Geologisk kort over Danmark, 1:50 000. (Geological map of Denmark) Sakskøbing 1411 I og 1412 II syd. With a summary in English

Stig A. Schack Pedersen, Leif Aabo Rasmussen and Johnny Fredericia

This descriptive text to the geological map of Sakskøbing is written in Danish, with an English summary and figure captions.

The cover text for the Danish Map Series volume 6 is translated here:
This descriptive text is the first of a map sheet in Denmark, and with Danish text, in the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland Map Series. The map sheet area shows the distribution of Quaternary deposits, which are dominated by clayey till from the advance of the ‘Ungbaltiske Is’ (the Young Baltic Ice) in the late part of the Weichselian. The deposits are visible especially in the low coastal cliffs on the north coast of Lolland and on a number of small islands in the Smålandsfarvandet. Also meltwater sand and gravel are found at Birket on north Lolland. Postglacial freshwater deposits are found in bogs and lakes and along creeks and in depressions in the terrain, while marine postglacial deposits are locally found along the coasts of Lolland and the many small islands. The underlying layers of Maastrichtian and Danian chalk and limestone from are shown on thematic maps and profiles.

The descriptive text gives a systematic account of the lithostratigraphy of the Quaternary deposits including their composition, age and formation. The pre-Quaternary deposits in the area are described focusing on the Maastrichtian and Danian layers and their tectonics. The account is based on mapping data, drilling and geophysical data. 

The landscape’s glaciodynamic development during Late Weichselian is dominated by the advance from north-east (Hovedfremstødet) and the advance of the ‘Ungbaltiske Is’ (the Young Baltic Ice) from east and south-east with deposits of clayey till and related meltwater deposits

The English summary is presented here:

The geological map sheet Sakskøbing on a scale of 1:50 000 comprises the topographical map sheet 1411 I and the southern part of the topographical map sheet 1412 II in southern Denmark. The map covers the cen­tral part of northern Lolland and the archipelago of Smålandsfarvandet to its north. The geological map sheet documents the distribution of Quaternary depos­its in a region dominated by glacial dynamics related to the latest, Weichselian glaciation of southern Denmark.

The map sheet area consists of lowland with elevations mainly between 0–10 m above sea level (a.s.l.) and shal­low marine areas with elevations between 0–7 m below sea level (b.s.l.). The area of Birket and Ravnsby Bak­ker constitutes a marked exception to the flat landscape and includes the two highest points of Lolland, Bavne­høj and Ravnsby Bakker around 30 m a.s.l. Along the trend formed by Sakskøbing Fjord, the seabed of Små­landsfarvandet is incised by the up to 16 m deep trench of Lindholm Dyb – Ståldyb. Two shallower, parallel trenches are formed by Femø Sund and the extension of Guldborg Sund farther to the north-east. Although the topography of the map area is relatively flat, the depth to the top of the pre-Quaternary bedrock is quite variable. The thickness of the Quaternary deposits is greatest to the west, where it exceeds 50 m in the area around Lind­holm Dyb between Fejø and Skifterne (Figs 14, 16), and decrease to only 5 m between Sakskøbing and Havløkke in the centre of the map area.

The bedrock predominantly consists of Maastrichtian chalk, which is cut by several SE–NW-striking faults along elongate horst and half-graben structures (see inset figure Depth to top of chalk on the map sheet). Bryozoan limestone of Danian age with thicknesses of up to 20 m is preserved in the Nøbbet, Kragenæs and Femø Sund grabens. The most pronounced horst is the Merretskov Horst, where Cretaceous chalk occurs 0 m a.s.l. (Figs 14, 16). During the Mesozoic and Cenozoic the map area was under influence by salt tectonics as well as fault movements along the southern margin of the Ring¬købing–Fyn High (Fig. 3). The predominant SE–NW direction of the Mesozoic–Cenozoic faults re-occurs in the Quaternary geomorphology, suggesting Quaternary rejuvenation of the fault system.

The Quaternary deposits that overlie Maastrichtian chalk and Danian limestone vary in thickness between 5 and 75 m. These deposits are differentiated into four litostratigraphic formations, which were deposited dur­ing glaciogeological dynamic events at the glacial maxi­mum during the last part of the Weichselian ice age about 25 000–17 000 years ago. Two of these forma­tions, namely the Tebbestrup and Midtdanske Till For­mations, have previously been established and are recog­nised regionally in the central part of southern Denmark (Houmark-Nielsen 1987, 1999, 2003; Houmark-Nielsen & Kjær 2003). The two other formations, the Birket and Lolland Till Formations, are new (Fig. 6). The Birket Formation is interpreted as comprising recessive meltwa­ter deposits overlying the Midtdanske Till Formation, and is mainly found in tunnel valleys formed during the retreat of the Main Weichselian Advance (Nordøstisen). The Lolland Till Formation comprises the predominant till that was deposited during the advance of the Ungbal­tiske Is. Scattered occurrences of extramarginal, glacio­lacustrine deposits overlying the Lolland Till Formation terminate the glacial deposition. These are informally named the Grænge lagene (beds), after bogs located along the Sakskøbing Fjord Lineament south-east of Sakskøbing. Here, remnants of
Bos taurus ursus (Andersen & Møller 1946) have been found in peat beds covering these deposits.

Holocene terrestrial deposits are thin and comprise undifferentiated freshwater deposits, mainly peat, lo­cated in depressions and drainage systems. Holocene marine deposits comprise beach sand and gravel in beach ridges that build out marine forlands by accretion around points and necks. A good example is the angular spit at the southern end of Femø. Thin layers of marine gyttjas have mainly been accumulated in the deepest parts of Smålandsfarvandet. Marine deposits also occur in areas reclaimed from the sea behind artificial dams, e.g. in the southern part of Askø. The late Holocene evo­lution of the Smålandsfarvandet archipelago was charac­terised by the Atlantic transgression around 8000 years ago. The drowning of the landscape is documented by artifacts and other traces of Stone Age settlements of the Ertebølle culture, which have been found on the sea bed about 5 m b.s.l.

Download the descriptive text: map6_p01-42.pdf (pdf-file ca. 6,1 Mb)

Authors' addresses:
S.A.S.P. & J.F., Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland,
Øster Voldgade 10, DK-1350 Copenhagen K, Denmark. E-mail:
L.A.R. Äskebäck Norregård 2, 36023 Älmeboda, Sweden


Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland Map Series is available from:
Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland
Øster Voldgade 10, DK-1350 Copenhagen K, Denmark
Phone: + 45 38 14 21 00, e-mail:

Price (including the map): DKK 280 excluding VAT

Vol. 6 Geol. Surv. Den. Greenl. Map Series