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> Forsiden > Data og kort > Grønland > Geological map of North and Northeast Greenland 1:250.000

Uddrag af Danmarks og Grønlands Geologiske Undersøgelse Rapport 2005/28

 
Geologiske kort over Grønland 1:250.000. Geological and topographical maps at a scale of 1:250 000 and some overview maps - North and Northeast Greenland

Hjemtag (download) denne sides indhold i pdf-format (velegnet til udskrivning): extract_geus_rap_2005_28.pdf (~ 2,1 Mb)
PDF-filer kræver et separat program. Hvis du ikke allerede har et program til at vise pdf-filer kan du hjemtage (downloade): Acrobat Reader eller GSview

The interactive map: arcims.mim.dk/website/GEUS/Greenland/Geo_Neg


1. Abstract

North and Northeast Greenland geological and topographical maps at
a scale of 1:250 000 and some overview maps.


The present text is based on GEUS Report 2005/28 (Ineson et al. 2006). The report
(including a DVD) is presently classified as 'confidential' due to restrictions on the digital
topographic dataset.


Comments or corrections to the site and the dataset are welcomed, and can be sent to the
following email address: geus@geus.dk with the following subject: "Thematic maps -
GEUS 2005/28"

2. Introduction

In August 2002, the Greenland Government endorsed a Strategy plan for the National Park
in North and Northeast Greenland and the Scoresby Sund area (Grønlands Hjemmestyre
2004).The data compilation for this plan required a reliable and homogenous digital topog-
raphic map as well as data on geology, biology and archaeology presented in thematic
maps. Projects financed by the Danish Co-operation for Environment in the Arctic, Ministry
of the Environment (DANCEA), was therefore launched. Some of the data compiled are
accessible from this web-site, i.e. the geological and topographical maps. The site is for pro-
fessional users with some ArcIMS or similar experience. The interactive map is produced using
ArcIMS. An ArcMap document that symbolises the data has been translated to a web-
service. No extra functionality has been added to the standard ArcIMS map server. The
(hot) link tool must be used to access the PDF-documents (4.5 Datasheet presentation).
When using the interactive map, the user has the option of using either the general topographic
map or the geological map. Please note that the topographic map at this time (June 2005)
is not yet declassified for free distribution.


2.1 Geographical area

The site covers an area from 80°N on Greenland's Northwest coast extending eastwards to
the northernmost point of Greenland and south to 70°N on the east coast; this comprises
roughly half of Greenland's ice-free land area (Fig. 2.1).


The area covers c . 220 000 km2 and includes the National Park of North and Northeast
Greenland and the area around Scoresby Sund.


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Fig. 2.1. Map of North and Northeast Greenland showing the study area relative to the
National Park area.
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3. Digital topographic data

3.1 Introduction
The 2002 strategy plan for the National Park in North and Northeast Greenland and the
Scoresby Sund area outlined the need for compilation of a wide array of data. In order to
provide the framework, a homogeneous digital topographic dataset based on modern
photogrammetry was needed. The Danish Cooperation for Environment in the Arctic,
Ministry of the Environment (DANCEA) therefore initiated a project to compile a digital
topographic dataset. The production of the topographic data was undertaken by the
Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS) and is described in Jepsen et al.
(2003).

3.2 History
The history of the topographic mapping of North and Northeast Greenland is described in
Dawes (2003) and Nielsen et al. (1995). Maps covering the area prior to 1970 were com-
piled at 1:300 000 for North Greenland by Koch (1932, 1940), part of Northeast Greenland
at 1:250 000 in the 1930s by the Geodetic Institute, and the entire region at 1:250 000 by
the American Army Map Services in the 1950s.
Modern geodetic work in the present project area started in the 1970s, when modern
technologies and funding became available (Madsen 1984) and planimetric errors up to 20
km in the existing mapping were discovered and documented (Lillestrand & Johnson 1971).
Modern techniques (available from the mid-1970s) included: (1) Satellite based geodetic
ground control, (2) High altitude super-wide angle photography, (3) Computation of large
least squares bundle adjustment, and (4) Digital registration from photogrammetric stereo
plotters.
At the same time, the Geological Survey of Greenland (GGU) needed modern topographic
maps for compiling geological data at a map scale of 1:100 000 and 1:500 000. In 1977,
GGU established a Laboratory for Geological Applied Photogrammetry applying the new
methods of high precision digital photogrammetry to the study of aerial photographs of
Greenland (Hougaard et al. 1991).
In 1995, the Geological Survey of Greenland (GGU) and the Geological Survey of Denmark
(DGU) merged into the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), and GEUS
has continued the high precision mapping of areas in Greenland where geological mapping
was undertaken.

3.3 Coverage, origin and description of topographic data
The data covers an area from latitude 80°N on Greenland's Northwest coast across North
Greenland and down to latitude 70°N on the east coast; it comprises an area of c . 220 000
km
2
i.e. roughly half of Greenland's ice-free land area.
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Fig. 3.1. Index map showing different data subsets.
At the project start, digital topographic maps covering c . 80% of the area already existed.
Of these, 70% were produced by the GGU/GEUS laboratory and 10% were supplied by the
National Survey and Cadastre (KMS). The remaining 20% were produced by GEUS during
the project period. The present topographic dataset covering the National Park and
Scoresby Sund areas has thus been produced over a period of more than 25 years.
Reflecting the technological evolution in that period, photogrammetric methods and the
quality of ground control have changed over the years, and the dataset can therefore be
described with reference to several subsets corresponding to this evolution (Fig. 3.1).
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Aerial photographs at a scale of 1:150 000 and photographed from c . 14 km altitude with
super-wide angle 9-inch photogrammetric cameras form the basis for all data. The aerial
photo campaigns were carried out by KMS over a 10-year period from 1978 to 1987
(Bengtson 1983). Ground control was established by KMS (Madsen 1984). From 1976, the
TRANSIT satellites and Doppler measurements were used at a large number of geodetic
control points with a spacing of about 50-60 km. The Doppler observations were
supplemented with traditional trigonometric measurements, barometric observations and
gravity and geoid determinations.
Most of the area has been aerotriangulated by KMS. In each aerial photograph, 10+ points
are measured, each of which are measured in 2-4 different overlapping photographs. The
locations of the geodetic ground control were visually transferred to the photographs and
included in the point measurements. The observations were computed in a least squares
adjustment (Poder 1982), with each photo treated as a free bundle of rays. The adjusted
xyz-ground coordinates have rms. errors below 10 m.
The time-consuming measurement of the many photos covering all of Greenland extended
over some 20 years. Prioritisation of the different areas being measured was planned in
close co-operation with GGU. Approximately 15% of the area was, however, aerotriangu-
lated by the GGU laboratory and it was done using photogrammetric model coordinates as
computational units. The resulting GGU generated ground coordinates have xy-rms. errors
of about 30 m and z-rms. errors of about 10 m.
From 1978 to 1999, a mechanical-optical 2nd order stereorestitution instrument of the type
KERN PG2 produced the topographic data from the GEUS laboratory. The instrument util-
ised transparent photographic copies of the aerial photographs. Both the hydrographic
themes (coastlines, lakes, rivers, ice margins) and the contour lines were generated manu-
ally. In the period up to mid-1988, the PG2 instrument was equipped with a slow prototype
xyz-digitiser which periodically would skip one or two vertices when the stereooperator was
drawing at high speed.
Since 2000, topographic data has been produced by a digital photogrammetric workstation
(DPW) from LH-Systems using digital scanned copies of the aerial photographs. The
hydrographic themes are still generated manually whereas the contour lines are generated
from an automatically extracted digital terrain model (DTM). Breaklines including the hydro-
graphic themes are included during the DTM generation.
KAMPSAX A/S (now part of COWI A/S) produces the data supplied by KMS on a digital
photogrammetric workstation using digital scanned copies of the aerial photographs.
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The data produced by GEUS and the data supplied by KMS are summarised as follow:
Data produced by GEUS:
Target map scale:
1:100 000
Topographic themes: hydrography and 100 m equidistant contour lines
both on ice-free land and on parts of the ice
Area coverage:
c. 90% of the target area
Subareas:
PG2 data based on GEUS aerotriangulation.
PG2 data based on KMS aerotriangulation
DPW data based on KMS aerotriangulation
Data supplied by KMS:
Target map scale:
1:250 000
Topographic themes: hydrography and 100 m equidistant contour lines
on ice-free land
Area coverage:
c . 10% of the target area. The area is located on
the east coast, west of 27°W between 70°N and
72°N
The attributes DATE, SOURCE_ID and SO_DATAID can be used to distinguish
between the different data subsets.
The themes included in the topographic data set are illustrated on Figure 3.2. It
should be noted that as a general rule no man-made objects are included in the
present dataset.
The raw 3D photogrammetric data were imported to the Esri ArcInfo GIS-platform
as 2D data. Topology was validated (i.e. polygons are closed) and attribute data
were added. In a semi-automatic procedure, the 1:100 000 data were generalised
to a 1:250 000 version using line smoothing, elimination of small areas and minor
rivers. In the 1:250 000 dataset, consistency of the contour lines was further vali-
dated and place names added. Data at the two target scales are each unified into
seamless datasets.
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Fig. 3.2. 1:250 000 map sample with themes available in the digital dataset.
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3.4 Place names
Place names are an important key to geographic information and the present map compila-
tion therefore includes place names. In North and Northeast Greenland, most place names
are European. However where Greenlandic names exist, both forms are used. In the
project area, several thousand names are authorised. Of these c . 1700 names are used in
the 1:250 000 dataset. Five different sources have been used:
· Laursen
(1972)
· Higgins (in press)
· The Place Name Register (developed by KMS)
· Reference maps of The Place Name Register
· Various maps produced by GEUS over the years
Oqaasileriffik, The Greenland Place Name Committee, Nuuk have kindly checked the place
name theme.

4. Digital geological maps

4.1 Data sources
Geological mapping of North and Northeast Greenland at a scale of 1:500 000 was com-
pleted by the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland in 1999. The resulting 7 geo-
logical map sheets were published over a period of 20 years between 1984 and 2004 (Fig.
4.1 and list below). In order to establish a common geological reference map for the 3
themes of this project (geology, mineral occurrences and hydrocarbons), the 7 map sheets
have been compiled into a single digital map at a target scale of 1:250 000. The progres-
sive development of the geological understanding of the area over the last two decades
has been incorporated into the dataset, and the nomenclature of map units has been made
consistent across the original map boundaries. The digital topographic base map for the
compilation was established with the best possible precision prior to this project (see sec-
tion 3, above).

4.2 Map at target scale of 1:250 000
Four of the seven map sheets (7, 8, 10 and 12) were originally produced as hand-drawn
(scribed peel-coats) print originals; they thus had to be vectorised manually and transferred
to the Survey's ESRI ArcInfo GIS database. During this process, line- and polygon topology
has been validated and attribute data added. The geometrical precision of three of the
maps was satisfactory and adjustment to the new topographic base was fairly straightfor-
ward. In contrast, the fourth map sheet (12 Scoresby Sund) showed a very low degree of
geometrical precision, and vectorising has involved a great amount of adjustment with con-
sequent loss of precision with respect to the positioning of geological boundaries and struc-
tures.
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The remaining three map sheets (6, 9 and 11) were originally compiled as digital datasets
on an ArcInfo GIS platform. Map sheet 6 (Humboldt Gletscher) was compiled at a target
scale of 1:500 000 and has (with minor attribute changes) been transferred to the 1:250
000 database. Map sheet 9 (Lambert Land) were originally compiled at a target scale of
1:100 000. It has been generalised and transferred to the 1:250 000 database. Map sheet
11 (Kong Oscar Fjord) was already compiled at a target scale of 1:250 000. Its attribute
tables have been brought into conformity with the rest of the 1:250 000 dataset and a few
structural lines have been modified tOFit the adjoining map sheets.
Fig. 4.1. Index of Geological map sheets of Greenland, 1:500 000. Year of publication.

The project area stretching from 80°N on the north-west coast through North and Northeast
Greenland to 70°N on the east coast is now covered by a seamless and homogeneous
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dataset which can be accessed as GIS-intelligent data (see section 10, below). The amount
of detail reflects the information on the published map sheets at a scale of 1:500 000 with
the exception of areas covered by map sheets 9 and 11 where the dataset includes addi-
tional details from maps originally compiled at a scale of 1:100 000 and 1:250 000, respec-
tively. Although concerted efforts have been made to quality-check the conversion from
paper to digital form, errors are clearly unavoidable in such a comprehensive dataset; we
thus encourage the user to bring such potential problems to our attention so that ongoing
refinement of this digital geological archive can be undertaken.
4.3 Synoptic maps
Two map sheets at a target scale of 1:5 000 000 have been compiled, summarising the
structural framework, sedimentary basins and basement complexes (Figs 4.2 and 4.3).
These maps can also be accessed at the web-site.

4.4 Source maps
The following seven 1:500 000 scale maps form the basis geological data source for the
integrated digital geological dataset (Fig. 4.1).
Bengaard, H.-J. & Henriksen, N. 1984: Geological map of Greenland, 1:500 000, Scoresby
Sund, sheet 12. Copenhagen: Geological Survey of Greenland.
Bengaard, H.-J. & Henriksen, N. 1986: Geological map of Greenland, 1:500 000, Peary
Land, sheet 8. Copenhagen: Geological Survey of Greenland.
Dawes, P.R. & Garde, A.A. 2004: Geological map of Greenland, 1:500 000, Humboldt
Gletscher, sheet 6. Copenhagen: Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland.
Escher, J.C. 2001: Geological map of Greenland, 1:500 000, Kong Oscar Fjord, sheet 11.
Copenhagen: Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland.
Henriksen, N. 1989: Geological map of Greenland, 1:500 000, Nyeboe Land, sheet 7.
Copenhagen: Geological Survey of Greenland.
Henriksen, N. 1997: Geological map of Greenland, 1:500 000, Dove Bugt, sheet 10.
Copenhagen: Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland.
Jepsen, H.F. 2000: Geological map of Greenland, 1:500 000, Lambert Land, sheet 9.
Copenhagen: Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland.
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Fig. 4.2. Synoptic map - Structures.
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Fig. 4.3. Synoptic map - Sedimentary basins and basement complexes.
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4.5 Datasheet presentation
The geological maps presented on the Web-site are linked to a comprehensive strati-
graphic lexicon that provides summary information on all lithostratigraphic units utilised in
the area; an example of the information available on the individual stratigraphic datasheets
is given in Figure 4.4.

Fig. 4.4.
A representative datasheet illustrating the standard layout used in the Web-site.
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4. Data
specifications
The data for this site are divided into two kinds :

1)
The GIS-dataset (ESRI shape file) used for visualisation.
2)
PDF-files, which can be opened directly from the web-application.

Table 10.1 lists all GIS-datasets included on the Web-site. All GIS-datasets are in UTM
zone 24, WGS 84.
Name Contents
Names as text
Place names as text
Names as points
Place names as points
Grid Lat:15' Long 1°
Dense geographical grid
Grid Lat:1° Long:5°
Coarse geographical grid
Mapsheets
Map sheet borders for geological
maps
Grid + frame
Custom grid with frame
Projectarea boundary Project area boundary
Natpark boundary
National park boundary
Points Topographical
points
Contours Contours
Rivers Rivers
Geology text
Text annotation for geological map
Geology point
Markers for geological map
Geology trends
Separate lines for geological map
Geology line
Polygon borders for geological map
Geology poly
Geological map polygons
Areas line
Lines for topographical map
Areas poly
Topographical map polygons
Structures text
Text for synoptic structural map
Structures line
Lines for synoptic structural map
Structures poly
Polygons for synoptic structural map
Basins text
Text for synoptic sediment map
Basins line
Lines for synoptic sediment map
Basins poly
Polygons for synoptic sediment map
Overview lines
Lines for simplified topographical
map
Overview polys
Polygons for simplified topographi-
cal map

Table 10.1. GIS-datasets on the Web-site.

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References
Bengtson, T. 1983: The mapping of North Greenland. Photogrammetric Record 11 (62), 135-
150.
Dawes, P.R. 2003: Udforskningen af Peary Land gennem 4000 år. In: Martens, G., Jensen,
J.F., Meldgaard, M. & Meltofte, H. (eds): Peary Land, 59-137.
Grønlands Hjemmestyre, Direktoratet for Miljø og Natur 2004: Strategiplan for Nationalparken /
Biosfæreområdet i Nord- og Østgrønland. 48 pp.
Higgins, A.K. in press: Place names of East Greenland 69° - 82°N. Copenhagen: Meddelelser
om Grønland.
Hougaard, G., Jepsen, H.F. & Neve, J.K. 1991: GGU's photogeological laboratory: aerial photo-
grammetry - a valuable geological mapping tool in Greenland. Grønlands Geologiske
Undersøgelse Rapport 152 , 32-35.
Ineson, J., Jepsen, H.F, Mikkelsen, N., Piasecki, S., von Platen-Hallermund, F., Thomassen, B.,
Schjøth, F. & Weng, W.L. 2006: Thematic maps and data of North and Northeast
Greenland: geology, mineral occurrences and hydrocarbons. Danmarks og Grønlands
Geologiske Undersøgelse Rapport 2005/28 .
Jepsen, H.F., Mikkelsen, N., von Platen-Hallermund, F., Schjøth, F. & Weng, W.L. 2003: Digital
topographic map of North and Northeast Greenland. Danmarks og Grønlands Geologiske
Undersøgelse Rapport 2003/89 , 23 pp, 1 CD-ROM included. (Confidential).
Koch, L. 1932: Map of North Greenland (18 sheets). Scale 1:300 000. Surveyed by Lauge Koch
in the years 1917-1923. Copenhagen: Geodetic Institute.
Koch, L. 1940: Survey of North Greenland. Meddelelser om Grønland 130 (1), 364 pp.
Laursen, D. 1972: The place names of North Greenland. Meddelelser om Grønland 180 (2), 443
pp.
Lillestrand, R.L. & Johnson, G.W. 1971: Cartography of North Greenland. Surveying and Map-
ping, Vol. XXXI (no. 2), 233-250.
Madsen, F. 1984: Geodætisk Instituts aktiviteter i Nationalparken. Forskning i Grønland 3/84 ,
28-35.
Nielsen, A., Olsen,J. & Weng, W.L. 1995: Grønlands opmåling og kortlægning.
Landinspektøren, Vol. 37 (no. 2), 233-250.
Poder, K. 1982: Data Processing and Adjustment. Proceedings, Survey Control Networks, FIG
Study Group 5B. Schriftenreihe, Hochschule der Bundeswehr 7 , 327-337.
Geological map of North and Northeast Greenland 1:250.000